Bio

Cause of cancer

Cells either go through the process of growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, or maintain the resting phase, and these processes are strictly regulated. However, in case of a cancer cell, Some genetic alterations causes Some changes of the characteristics of gene-encoded protein, and in results in abnormality in the management of cell growth. These malfunctioning accompanies gene modification, so cancer is considered as a genetic disease due to malfunctioning gene.


Research on cause of cancer is focused on two points

Genetic alterations

Commonly when a normal cell gets exposed to the real risk factors of cancer occurrence, such as smoking, carcinogenicity food, chemical substance, and virus, it causes genetic alterations and, finally, cancer.cancer is caused by accumulation of various genetic changes over 20~30 years. Inherited genetic mutations also play a major role in about 5 ~10% of all cancers

Weakening of immune system

Normal human immune system has the ability to destroy 10 million tumor cells generated within the body. But There are at least 10 million cancer cells in the tumor that clinically diagnosed, so it greatly overwhelms the immune system. Thus the tumor cells cannot be eliminated, resulting in cancer.

[Source : National Cancer Information Center]

Cancer by statistics

- According to the national cancer registration statistics announced in 2014, the occurrence frequency of cancer increased for males from 57,594 in 1999 to 110,151 in 2011, and for females from 43,438 in 1999 to 107,866 in 2011, showing a yearly growing trend.

- According to the data from National Statistical Office in 2011, overall life expectancy is 81, with 77 for males and 84 for females. In case of living up to the average life expectancy age, the chance of cancer occurrence was 2 out of 5 for males, and 1 out of 3 for females.

Cancer by statistics

2011 standard All Male Female
Average life expectancy 81 77 84
Chance of cancer occurrence when living up to the age of life expectancy 36.9% 38.1%
(2 out of 5)
33.8%
(1 out of 3)

[Source : 2011 national cancer registration statistics (announced in January of 2014) variation]

Cancer treatment and side effects

- In general, the main types of cancer treatment include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, embolization and immunotherapy.

- Chemotherapy works by stopping or slowing the growth of cancer cells, which proliferate and divide quickly. , it As it can be worked not only on cancer cells but also on fast-growing notrmal cells, it causes side effects, such as anemia, nausea, and hair loss.

- Types of side effects can be different depending on anticancer drug. Also, the degree of side effects can be varied in patients

[Source : National Cancer Information Center]

Development background

- The ideal cancer treatment is to destroy cancer cells without damaging normal cells, but most of the existing treatments damage to normal cells. Therefore, it is needed for development of anticancer drugs, which destroy cancer cells and have few side effects

- The use of live viruses for the treatment of cancer dates back to a century. After that, engineered oncolytic viruses have been developed over the past 50 years.

Development background

KLS-3020 : Cancer killing medicine

- KLS-3020 is an anticancer drug which selectively eliminates cancer cells without damaging normal cells and enhances immune response against tumor.

- KLS-3020 is in development by incorporating some therapeutic genes that can increase antitumor effects

Cancer killing virus

  • Normal cell
    1. Virus infection
    2. Inhibition of viral replication by cellular defense mechanism
  • Cancer cell
    1. Virus infection
    2. Virus replication
    3. Killing of cancer cell and release of virus, sequential elimination of surrounding cancer cells, and promotion of  immune response to tumor

Preclinical research

1. Through some in vitro assays, tumor-specific cell killing and viral replication of the candidate substance was observed.

2. In the xenograft tumor model, inhibition of tumor growth by the candidate substance was observed.

Competitive strength of product

1. Virus that has been verified of safety in human (Safety)

2. Virus strain that has superior cancer cell killing activity (Efficacy)

3. Virus that expresses some proteins which can enhance antitumor effects